Russia and Ukraine is an important exporters of oil, natural gas, metals, fertilizers, rare gases and other industrial raw materials. Affected by the further intensification of the tension of the war, the global market has become more worried about the supply of the Prestressed Concrete, and panic spreads in the futures market. Prices of commodities such as aluminum and nickel are at recent highs on concerns that supplies will fall. Russia accounts for 49 percent of global exports of nickel, 42 percent of palladium, 26 percent of aluminum and 13 percent of platinum, and is a significant exporter of steel and copper. Palladium is an important metal for sensors and memory. In addition, Russia is the world's largest exporter of nitrogen fertilizer, the second largest exporter of potash fertilizer, and the third-largest exporter of phosphate fertilizer. Ukraine is also an important producer of nitrogen fertilizer. Russia's natural gas supply also has a significant impact on the global fertilizer industry and Prestressed Concrete industry, especially in Europe. The price of the Prestressed Concrete will also fluctuate to some extent. Russia carries out crude gas separation, and Ukraine is responsible for refined exports. Ukraine supplies 70% of the world's neon, 40% of krypton and 30% of xenon. These three gases are the materials used to make chips.
What is Prestressed Concrete?
Prestressed Concrete is a kind of concrete component mainly used in construction engineering and bridge engineering.
To avoid premature cracks in reinforced concrete structures, make full use of high-strength steel bars and high-strength Concrete, and try to reduce the tensile stress generated by the components by applying external forces before the concrete structures or components are subject to the service load, even in a state of compressive stress. Concrete elements are below.
How Prestressed Concrete Works
The pre-compression stress is used to reduce or offset the tensile stress of Concrete caused by the load, to control the tensile stress of the structural components to a small range, even in a compressed state, to delay the appearance and development of concrete cracks, thereby improving the resistance of the components. Crack performance and stiffness.
Advantages of Prestressed Concrete
1. Good crack resistance and high rigidity. Due to the prestressing of the components, the appearance of cracks is significantly delayed. Under the action of the load, the components may not appear to crack, or the cracks may be delayed, so the stiffness of the components is improved, and the durability of the structure is increased.
2. Save materials and reduce self-weight. Because its structure must use high-strength materials, it can reduce the number of steel bars and the section size of components, save steel and Concrete, and reduce the self-weight of the structure, which has obvious advantages for large-span heavy-load structures.
3. It can reduce the vertical shear force and primary tensile stress of concrete beams. The curved reinforcement (bundle) of the prestressed concrete beam can reduce the vertical shear force near the support in the beam. Because of the existence of prestress on the concrete section, the principal tensile stress under the load is also reduced. This is beneficial to reduce the web thickness of the beam so that the self-weight of the prestressed concrete beam can be further reduced.
4. Improve the stability of compression components. When the compression member is relatively long and slender, it is easy to be bent after receiving a certain pressure, resulting in loss of stability and destruction. If prestressing is applied to the reinforced concrete column so that the longitudinally stressed steel bars are tensioned very tightly, not only the prestressed steel bars themselves are not easy to bend, but they also can help the surrounding Concrete to improve the ability to resist bending.
5. Improve the fatigue resistance of components. Because the rebar with strong prestress has relatively small changes in stress caused by loading or unloading during the use stage. It can improve fatigue strength, which is very beneficial for structures that bear dynamic loads.
6. Prestress can be used as a means of connecting structural components to promote the development of new systems and construction methods for large-span structures
Some requirements for prestressed steel bars:
(1) The strength should be high. The tensile stress of prestressed steel bars will cause various stress losses during the entire fabrication and use of components. The sum of these losses can sometimes reach more than 200N/mm² if the strength of the steel bar used is not high, the stress established during tension will even be lost.
(2) It must have good adhesion with Concrete. Especially in the pretensioning method, there must be a high bond self-anchoring strength between the prestressed steel bar and the Concrete. For some high-strength smooth steel wire, it is necessary to go through "scoring," "pressure wave," or "kink" so that it can form scored steel wire, corrugated steel wire, and kinked steel wire to increase the bonding force.
(3) There must be sufficient plasticity and good processing properties. The higher the strength of the steel, the lower its plasticity. When the plasticity of the steel bar is too low, especially under low temperature and impact loading conditions, a brittle fracture may occur. Good workability means that the welding performance is good. When the upsetting head anchor plate is used, the upsetting of the steel bar head does not affect the original mechanical properties, etc.
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Recently, the Turkish government announced that the Turkish President has signed a presidential decree to provide incentives for its Black Sea gas field development projects, including tax exemptions and other preferential measures.
With a fixed investment of 145.1 billion Turkish lira ($10 billion), the project will employ 1,018 people and produce 14 billion standard cubic meters of gas per year, the decree reads. The incentives involved include tariff and VAT exemptions, as well as a range of tax cuts.
In June 2021, Turkish drill ships discovered 135 billion cubic meters of natural gas in the Sakaria field in the Black Sea, bringing Turkey's total gas discoveries in the region to 540 billion cubic meters.
Turkey imports almost all of its annual gas consumption of about 50 billion cubic meters.
Except for natural gas, the supply and prices of many other Prestressed Concrete will continue to be influenced by international situations.
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